Many giving circles operate as lone, independent organisations. But others belong to networks, perhaps with shared branding and even operating like a franchise. Many of the Asian giving circles identified in my research as 'transplanted' were members of a network with origins in the US or UK.

There are also several philanthropy intermediaries who support and facilitate giving circles in their country or even globally.

The giving circle 'ecosystem' is still in its infancy and remains fragmented. Philanthropy Together is an intermediary that is trying to connect giving circles globally and grow their number.

SVP is one of the oldest giving circle networks, originating in Seattle, US in 1997 but now with affiliates in 7 non-North American countries. Recent expansion in India and China is particularly notable (and has been documented in my working papers).